Effective date: February 15, 2019
Iranian Association of Boston INC. ("us", "we", or "our") operates the https://www.iaboston.org, iaboston.net website and the IABOSTON. Kanoon, IAB mobile application (hereinafter referred to as the "Service").
This page informs you of our policies regarding the collection, use and disclosure of personal data when you use our Service and the choices you have associated with that data.
Service means the https://www.iaboston.org, iaboston.net website and the IABOSTON. Kanoon, IAB mobile application operated by Iranian Association of Boston INC.
Personal Data means data about a living individual who can be identified from those data (or from those and other information either in our possession or likely to come into our possession).
Usage Data is data collected automatically either generated by the use of the Service or from the Service infrastructure itself (for example, the duration of a page visit).
Cookies are small files stored on your device (computer or mobile device).
Data Controller means the natural or legal person who (either alone or jointly or in common with other persons) determines the purposes for which and the manner in which any personal information are, or are to be, processed.
Data Processors (or Service Providers)
Data Processor (or Service Provider) means any natural or legal person who processes the data on behalf of the Data Controller.
We may use the services of various Service Providers in order to process your data more effectively.
Data Subject (or User)
Data Subject is any living individual who is using our Service and is the subject of Personal Data.
We collect several different types of information for various purposes to provide and improve our Service to you.
While using our Service, we may ask you to provide us with certain personally identifiable information that can be used to contact or identify you ("Personal Data"). Personally identifiable information may include, but is not limited to:
We may use your Personal Data to contact you with newsletters, marketing or promotional materials and other information that may be of interest to you. You may opt out of receiving any, or all, of these communications from us by following the unsubscribe link or instructions provided in any email we send or by contacting us.
We may also collect information that your browser sends whenever you visit our Service or when you access the Service by or through a mobile device ("Usage Data").
This Usage Data may include information such as your computer's Internet Protocol address (e.g. IP address), browser type, browser version, the pages of our Service that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data.
When you access the Service with a mobile device, this Usage Data may include information such as the type of mobile device you use, your mobile device unique ID, the IP address of your mobile device, your mobile operating system, the type of mobile Internet browser you use, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data.
We may use and store information about your location if you give us permission to do so ("Location Data"). We use this data to provide features of our Service, to improve and customise our Service.
You can enable or disable location services when you use our Service at any time by way of your device settings.
Cookies are files with a small amount of data which may include an anonymous unique identifier. Cookies are sent to your browser from a website and stored on your device. Other tracking technologies are also used such as beacons, tags and scripts to collect and track information and to improve and analyse our Service.
You can instruct your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, if you do not accept cookies, you may not be able to use some portions of our Service.
Examples of Cookies we use:
Iranian Association of Boston INC. uses the collected data for various purposes:
Iranian Association of Boston INC. may process your Personal Data because:
Iranian Association of Boston INC. will also retain Usage Data for internal analysis purposes. Usage Data is generally retained for a shorter period of time, except when this data is used to strengthen the security or to improve the functionality of our Service, or we are legally obligated to retain this data for longer periods.
Your information, including Personal Data, may be transferred to - and maintained on - computers located outside of your state, province, country or other governmental jurisdiction where the data protection laws may differ from those of your jurisdiction.
If you are located outside United States and choose to provide information to us, please note that we transfer the data, including Personal Data, to United States and process it there.
Under certain circumstances, Iranian Association of Boston INC. may be required to disclose your Personal Data if required to do so by law or in response to valid requests by public authorities (e.g. a court or a government agency).
Iranian Association of Boston INC. may disclose your Personal Data in the good faith belief that such action is necessary to:
The security of your data is important to us but remember that no method of transmission over the Internet or method of electronic storage is 100% secure. While we strive to use commercially acceptable means to protect your Personal Data, we cannot guarantee its absolute security.
We do not support Do Not Track ("DNT"). Do Not Track is a preference you can set in your web browser to inform websites that you do not want to be tracked.
You can enable or disable Do Not Track by visiting the Preferences or Settings page of your web browser.
If you are a resident of the European Economic Area (EEA), you have certain data protection rights. Iranian Association of Boston INC. aims to take reasonable steps to allow you to correct, amend, delete or limit the use of your Personal Data.
If you wish to be informed about what Personal Data we hold about you and if you want it to be removed from our systems, please contact us.
In certain circumstances, you have the following data protection rights:
The right to access, update or delete the information we have on you. Whenever made possible, you can access, update or request deletion of your Personal Data directly within your account settings section. If you are unable to perform these actions yourself, please contact us to assist you.
The right of rectification. You have the right to have your information rectified if that information is inaccurate or incomplete.
The right to object. You have the right to object to our processing of your Personal Data.
The right of restriction. You have the right to request that we restrict the processing of your personal information.
The right to data portability. You have the right to be provided with a copy of the information we have on you in a structured, machine-readable and commonly used format.
The right to withdraw consent. You also have the right to withdraw your consent at any time where Iranian Association of Boston INC. relied on your consent to process your personal information.
Please note that we may ask you to verify your identity before responding to such requests.
You have the right to complain to a Data Protection Authority about our collection and use of your Personal Data. For more information, please contact your local data protection authority in the European Economic Area (EEA).
We may employ third party companies and individuals to facilitate our Service ("Service Providers"), provide the Service on our behalf, perform Service-related services or assist us in analysing how our Service is used.
These third parties have access to your Personal Data only to perform these tasks on our behalf and are obligated not to disclose or use it for any other purpose.
We may use third-party Service Providers to monitor and analyse the use of our Service.
Google Analytics is a web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. Google uses the data collected to track and monitor the use of our Service. This data is shared with other Google services. Google may use the collected data to contextualise and personalise the ads of its own advertising network.
For more information on the privacy practices of Google, please visit the Google Privacy & Terms web page: https://policies.google.com/privacy?hl=en
Piwik / Matomo
Unity Analytics is provided by Unity Technologies.
We may use third-party Service Providers to show advertisements to you to help support and maintain our Service.
Google AdSense & DoubleClick Cookie
You may opt out of the use of the DoubleClick Cookie for interest-based advertising by visiting the Google Ads Settings web page: http://www.google.com/ads/preferences/
Bing Ads is an advertising service provided by Microsoft Inc.
You can opt-out from Bing Ads by following the instructions on Bing Ads Opt-out page: https://advertise.bingads.microsoft.com/en-us/resources/policies/personalized-ads
AdMob by Google
AdMob by Google is provided by Google Inc.
You can opt-out from the AdMob by Google service by following the instructions described by Google: https://support.google.com/ads/answer/2662922?hl=en
InMobi is provided by InMobi Pte Ltd.
You can opt-out from InMobi service by following the instructions as described on the InMobi Opt-out page: http://www.inmobi.com/page/opt-out/
MoPub is provided by MobPub Inc.
You can opt-out from MobPub service by following the instructions on MoPub Opt-out page: http://www.mopub.com/optout/
AdButler is an advertising service provided by Sparklit Networks Inc.
Unity Ads is provided by Unity Technologies.
Google Ads (AdWords)
Google Ads (AdWords) remarketing service is provided by Google Inc.
You can opt-out of Google Analytics for Display Advertising and customise the Google Display Network ads by visiting the Google Ads Settings page: http://www.google.com/settings/ads
Google also recommends installing the Google Analytics Opt-out Browser Add-on - https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout - for your web browser. Google Analytics Opt-out Browser Add-on provides visitors with the ability to prevent their data from being collected and used by Google Analytics.
For more information on the privacy practices of Google, please visit the Google Privacy & Terms web page: https://policies.google.com/privacy?hl=en
Bing Ads Remarketing
Bing Ads remarketing service is provided by Microsoft Inc.
You can opt-out of Bing Ads interest-based ads by following their instructions: https://advertise.bingads.microsoft.com/en-us/resources/policies/personalized-ads
Facebook remarketing service is provided by Facebook Inc.
You can learn more about interest-based advertising from Facebook by visiting this page: https://www.facebook.com/help/164968693837950
To opt-out from Facebook's interest-based ads, follow these instructions from Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/help/568137493302217
Facebook adheres to the Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioural Advertising established by the Digital Advertising Alliance. You can also opt-out from Facebook and other participating companies through the Digital Advertising Alliance in the USA http://www.aboutads.info/choices/, the Digital Advertising Alliance of Canada in Canada http://youradchoices.ca/ or the European Interactive Digital Advertising Alliance in Europe http://www.youronlinechoices.eu/, or opt-out using your mobile device settings.
For more information on the privacy practices of Facebook, please visit Facebook's Data Policy: https://www.facebook.com/privacy/explanation
We may provide paid products and/or services within the Service. In that case, we use third-party services for payment processing (e.g. payment processors).
The payment processors we work with are:
Apple Store In-App Payments
Google Play In-App Payments
PayPal / Braintree
We have no control over and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies or practices of any third party sites or services.
Our Service does not address anyone under the age of 18 ("Children").
We do not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from anyone under the age of 18. If you are a parent or guardian and you are aware that your Child has provided us with Personal Data, please contact us. If we become aware that we have collected Personal Data from children without verification of parental consent, we take steps to remove that information from our servers.
Last updated: February 15, 2019
Cookies are small pieces of text sent to your web browser by a website you visit. A cookie file is stored in your web browser and allows the Service or a third-party to recognize you and make your next visit easier and the Service more useful to you.
Cookies can be "persistent" or "session" cookies. Persistent cookies remain on your personal computer or mobile device when you go offline, while session cookies are deleted as soon as you close your web browser.
When you use and access the Service, we may place a number of cookies files in your web browser.
To enable certain functions of the Service
To provide analytics
To store your preferences
To enable advertisements delivery, including behavioral advertising
We use both session and persistent cookies on the Service and we use different types of cookies to run the Service:
Accounts-related cookies. We may use accounts-related cookies to authenticate users and prevent fraudulent use of user accounts. We may use these cookies to remember information that changes the way the Service behaves or looks, such as the "remember me" functionality.
Analytics cookies. We may use analytics cookies to track information how the Service is used so that we can make improvements. We may also use analytics cookies to test new advertisements, pages, features or new functionality of the Service to see how our users react to them.
Advertising cookies. These type of cookies are used to deliver advertisements on and through the Service and track the performance of these advertisements. These cookies may also be used to enable third-party advertising networks to deliver ads that may be relevant to you based upon your activities or interests.
In addition to our own cookies, we may also use various third-parties cookies to report usage statistics of the Service, deliver advertisements on and through the Service, and so on.
Please note, however, that if you delete cookies or refuse to accept them, you might not be able to use all of the features we offer, you may not be able to store your preferences, and some of our pages might not display properly.
For the Chrome web browser, please visit this page from Google: https://support.google.com/accounts/answer/32050
For the Internet Explorer web browser, please visit this page from Microsoft: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/278835
For the Firefox web browser, please visit this page from Mozilla: https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/delete-cookies-remove-info-websites-stored
For the Safari web browser, please visit this page from Apple: https://support.apple.com/guide/safari/manage-cookies-and-website-data-sfri11471/mac
For any other web browser, please visit your web browser's official web pages.
You can learn more about cookies and the following third-party websites:
Last updated: February 15, 2019
Please read these Terms and Conditions ("Terms", "Terms and Conditions") carefully before using the https://www.iaboston.org, iaboston.net website and the IABOSTON. Kanoon, IAB mobile application (together, or individually, the "Service") operated by Iranian Association of Boston INC. ("us", "we", or "our").
Your access to and use of the Service is conditioned upon your acceptance of and compliance with these Terms. These Terms apply to all visitors, users and others who wish to access or use the Service.
By accessing or using the Service you agree to be bound by these Terms. If you disagree with any part of the terms then you do not have permission to access the Service.
By creating an Account on our service, you agree to subscribe to newsletters, marketing or promotional materials and other information we may send. However, you may opt out of receiving any, or all, of these communications from us by following the unsubscribe link or instructions provided in any email we send.
If you wish to purchase any product or service made available through the Service ("Purchase"), you may be asked to supply certain information relevant to your Purchase including, without limitation, your credit card number, the expiration date of your credit card, your billing address, and your shipping information.
You represent and warrant that: (i) you have the legal right to use any credit card(s) or other payment method(s) in connection with any Purchase; and that (ii) the information you supply to us is true, correct and complete.
We reserve the right to refuse or cancel your order at any time for reasons including but not limited to: product or service availability, errors in the description or price of the product or service, error in your order or other reasons.
We reserve the right to refuse or cancel your order if fraud or an unauthorized or illegal transaction is suspected.
We are constantly updating product and service offerings on the Service. We may experience delays in updating information on the Service and in our advertising on other web sites. The information found on the Service may contain errors or inaccuracies and may not be complete or current. Products or services may be mispriced, described inaccurately, or unavailable on the Service and we cannot guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information found on the Service.
We therefore reserve the right to change or update information and to correct errors, inaccuracies, or omissions at any time without prior notice.
Some parts of the Service are billed on a subscription basis ("Subscription(s)"). You will be billed in advance on a recurring and periodic basis ("Billing Cycle"). Billing cycles are set either on a monthly or annual basis, depending on the type of subscription plan you select when purchasing a Subscription.
At the end of each Billing Cycle, your Subscription will automatically renew under the exact same conditions unless you cancel it or Iranian Association of Boston INC. cancels it. You may cancel your Subscription renewal either through your online account management page or by contacting Iranian Association of Boston INC. customer support team.
A valid payment method, including credit card or PayPal, is required to process the payment for your Subscription. You shall provide Iranian Association of Boston INC. with accurate and complete billing information including full name, address, state, zip code, telephone number, and a valid payment method information. By submitting such payment information, you automatically authorize Iranian Association of Boston INC. to charge all Subscription fees incurred through your account to any such payment instruments.
Should automatic billing fail to occur for any reason, Iranian Association of Boston INC. will issue an electronic invoice indicating that you must proceed manually, within a certain deadline date, with the full payment corresponding to the billing period as indicated on the invoice.
Iranian Association of Boston INC. may, at its sole discretion, offer a Subscription with a free trial for a limited period of time ("Free Trial").
You may be required to enter your billing information in order to sign up for the Free Trial.
If you do enter your billing information when signing up for the Free Trial, you will not be charged by Iranian Association of Boston INC. until the Free Trial has expired. On the last day of the Free Trial period, unless you cancelled your Subscription, you will be automatically charged the applicable Subscription fees for the type of Subscription you have selected.
At any time and without notice, Iranian Association of Boston INC. reserves the right to (i) modify the terms and conditions of the Free Trial offer, or (ii) cancel such Free Trial offer.
Iranian Association of Boston INC., in its sole discretion and at any time, may modify the Subscription fees for the Subscriptions. Any Subscription fee change will become effective at the end of the then-current Billing Cycle.
Iranian Association of Boston INC. will provide you with a reasonable prior notice of any change in Subscription fees to give you an opportunity to terminate your Subscription before such change becomes effective.
Your continued use of the Service after the Subscription fee change comes into effect constitutes your agreement to pay the modified Subscription fee amount.
Certain refund requests for Subscriptions may be considered by Iranian Association of Boston INC. on a case-by-case basis and granted in sole discretion of Iranian Association of Boston INC..
Our Service allows you to post, link, store, share and otherwise make available certain information, text, graphics, videos, or other material ("Content"). You are responsible for the Content that you post on or through the Service, including its legality, reliability, and appropriateness.
By posting Content on or through the Service, You represent and warrant that: (i) the Content is yours (you own it) and/or you have the right to use it and the right to grant us the rights and license as provided in these Terms, and (ii) that the posting of your Content on or through the Service does not violate the privacy rights, publicity rights, copyrights, contract rights or any other rights of any person or entity. We reserve the right to terminate the account of anyone found to be infringing on a copyright.
You retain any and all of your rights to any Content you submit, post or display on or through the Service and you are responsible for protecting those rights. We take no responsibility and assume no liability for Content you or any third party posts on or through the Service. However, by posting Content using the Service you grant us the right and license to use, modify, publicly perform, publicly display, reproduce, and distribute such Content on and through the Service. You agree that this license includes the right for us to make your Content available to other users of the Service, who may also use your Content subject to these Terms.
Iranian Association of Boston INC. has the right but not the obligation to monitor and edit all Content provided by users.
In addition, Content found on or through this Service are the property of Iranian Association of Boston INC. or used with permission. You may not distribute, modify, transmit, reuse, download, repost, copy, or use said Content, whether in whole or in part, for commercial purposes or for personal gain, without express advance written permission from us.
When you create an account with us, you guarantee that you are above the age of 18, and that the information you provide us is accurate, complete, and current at all times. Inaccurate, incomplete, or obsolete information may result in the immediate termination of your account on the Service.
You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account and password, including but not limited to the restriction of access to your computer and/or account. You agree to accept responsibility for any and all activities or actions that occur under your account and/or password, whether your password is with our Service or a third-party service. You must notify us immediately upon becoming aware of any breach of security or unauthorized use of your account.
You may not use as a username the name of another person or entity or that is not lawfully available for use, a name or trademark that is subject to any rights of another person or entity other than you, without appropriate authorization. You may not use as a username any name that is offensive, vulgar or obscene.
We reserve the right to refuse service, terminate accounts, remove or edit content, or cancel orders in our sole discretion.
The Service and its original content (excluding Content provided by users), features and functionality are and will remain the exclusive property of Iranian Association of Boston INC. and its licensors. The Service is protected by copyright, trademark, and other laws of both the United States and foreign countries. Our trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service without the prior written consent of Iranian Association of Boston INC..
Our Service may contain links to third party web sites or services that are not owned or controlled by Iranian Association of Boston INC.
Iranian Association of Boston INC. has no control over, and assumes no responsibility for the content, privacy policies, or practices of any third party web sites or services. We do not warrant the offerings of any of these entities/individuals or their websites.
You acknowledge and agree that Iranian Association of Boston INC. shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods or services available on or through any such third party web sites or services.
We strongly advise you to read the terms and conditions and privacy policies of any third party web sites or services that you visit.
We may terminate or suspend your account and bar access to the Service immediately, without prior notice or liability, under our sole discretion, for any reason whatsoever and without limitation, including but not limited to a breach of the Terms.
If you wish to terminate your account, you may simply discontinue using the Service.
All provisions of the Terms which by their nature should survive termination shall survive termination, including, without limitation, ownership provisions, warranty disclaimers, indemnity and limitations of liability.
You agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Iranian Association of Boston INC. and its licensee and licensors, and their employees, contractors, agents, officers and directors, from and against any and all claims, damages, obligations, losses, liabilities, costs or debt, and expenses (including but not limited to attorney's fees), resulting from or arising out of a) your use and access of the Service, by you or any person using your account and password; b) a breach of these Terms, or c) Content posted on the Service.
In no event shall Iranian Association of Boston INC., nor its directors, employees, partners, agents, suppliers, or affiliates, be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages, including without limitation, loss of profits, data, use, goodwill, or other intangible losses, resulting from (i) your access to or use of or inability to access or use the Service; (ii) any conduct or content of any third party on the Service; (iii) any content obtained from the Service; and (iv) unauthorized access, use or alteration of your transmissions or content, whether based on warranty, contract, tort (including negligence) or any other legal theory, whether or not we have been informed of the possibility of such damage, and even if a remedy set forth herein is found to have failed of its essential purpose.
Your use of the Service is at your sole risk. The Service is provided on an "AS IS" and "AS AVAILABLE" basis. The Service is provided without warranties of any kind, whether express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement or course of performance.
Iranian Association of Boston INC. its subsidiaries, affiliates, and its licensors do not warrant that a) the Service will function uninterrupted, secure or available at any particular time or location; b) any errors or defects will be corrected; c) the Service is free of viruses or other harmful components; or d) the results of using the Service will meet your requirements.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages, so the limitations above may not apply to you.
These Terms shall be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of Massachusetts, United States, without regard to its conflict of law provisions.
Our failure to enforce any right or provision of these Terms will not be considered a waiver of those rights. If any provision of these Terms is held to be invalid or unenforceable by a court, the remaining provisions of these Terms will remain in effect. These Terms constitute the entire agreement between us regarding our Service, and supersede and replace any prior agreements we might have had between us regarding the Service.
We reserve the right, at our sole discretion, to modify or replace these Terms at any time. If a revision is material we will provide at least 30 days notice prior to any new terms taking effect. What constitutes a material change will be determined at our sole discretion.
By continuing to access or use our Service after any revisions become effective, you agree to be bound by the revised terms. If you do not agree to the new terms, you are no longer authorized to use the Service.
If you have any questions about these Terms, please contact us.
Established in 1989, The Iranian Association of Boston (IAB) is a non-political, non-religious organization and has no affiliation with any political or religious organization. The Iranian Association of Boston is dedicated to promoting the cultural and social understanding of Iran. IAB is deeply committed to meeting the needs of the growing Iranian and Iranian American community. The organization strives solely on volunteer involvement. In order to help talented students with interest in Iranian culture to achieve their aspirations, IAB grants scholarship to students who have high academic performance as well as strong and documented interest in Iranian culture and society. IAB has deep interest in each of these students’ achievements throughout the scholarship period and beyond.
Applicant must have legal immigration status.
Applicant must be either of Iranian descent or have demonstrated active interest in Iranian culture and heritage.
Applicant must be a registered student in an accredited graduate or undergraduate higher education institution in any of the states in New England during the period of the scholarship.
Scholarship shall only be granted at the time that the student is enrolled in an academic institution in New England.
Past recipients of this scholarship are not eligible; however, previous applicants may re-apply.
Applicant must not be a relative of any members of the IAB Scholarship Committee, Council Members, and Executive Officers.
To recieve Application you must register and activate your account first.
If you alrady registe, please login first.
Session will open on April 1st.
To download the Application you must login to your account first.
After click on ico below you will receive an email with a download link on it.
In the following pages, an attempt has been made to portray a picture of Iran, its people, its history, religion and culture as accurate as possible based on historical facts. The intention is simply an effort to give a brief history and reasons of how we Iranians became who we are as a people. Hopefully, readers, especially the Iranian youth, will gain a better understanding of the people of Iran and their nation.
The name Iran denotes the land of the Aryans. The meaning of the word “Aryan” is noble or najib in Farsi. The Aryans were the people who came from central Asia and settled in the Iranian plateau about four thousand years ago. Prior to 1935, Iran was known as Persia. In 1935, under the reign of Reza Shah the name was changed to “Iran” since Persia implied the “Fars province” rather than the whole nation. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the name was changed to “The Islamic Republic of Iran”. Today’s Iran has an area of 1,648,000 sq. km. or 636,296 sq. mi. (roughly 1/6 of the US land mass). It is located in the southwestern part of Asia. To the north of Iran lie Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan. The neighbors to the east are Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. To the south are the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf. To the west are countries of Iraq and Turkey. Iran has 1650 miles of coastline and the country is connected to the open seas through the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea. Iran can be divided into four regions: the Interior Plateau, the Mountains, the Caspian Sea Coast and the Khuzestan Plain. The Interior Plateau covers more than half of the country and within it there are two large uninhabitable deserts, Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut that together covers more than 38,000 sq. miles. The plateau is over 3000 ft. above sea level and it is within an area in the shape of a large inverted V, formed by the two snow capped mountain ranges of Elburz in the north and Zagros in the east. Most of the major cities such as Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan, Shiraz and Hamadan are located on this plateau. These cities are high in altitude and range from 3200 to over 6000 ft. above sea level. Of course, the high altitude lowers the temperature at which the water boils and among other things it lengthens the cooking time of food. The Elburz range with its highest peak, Damavand (over 18,300 ft. and volcanic) is a continuation of the Alps in Europe and the range goes through Afghanistan and finally connects to the Himalayas. Most of the population lives in cities and villages on this plateau. Outside the plateau are the populated areas of Khuzestan and the Caspian Sea.
Iran’s climate varies from region to region. Temperatures in the northwest mountains drops to -20 o F in the winters and the summers are mild. However, the Khuzestan plain has very hot and humid summers (over 95 o F). The hottest point on earth has been recorded in the Iranian great desert, of Dasht-e Lut, with a temperature of 60 o C or 140 o F. Because of the low annual snow- or rain-falls in most of Iran (between 2 to 9 inches), water is scarce in much of the country. However, the Caspian Sea area has an annual rainfall of about 40 inches, has mild temperatures and is lush green. Except for a few cities that have their water sources from the rivers, dams and lakes, the majority of cities and some villages get their water from wells. Irrigation is used for most of the farming and in the villages, especially for farming, water is supplied through springs or qanats. Qanat or kariz is a system that was probably invented by the Persians several thousand years ago, where water from its source, usually the foothills of a mountain is brought to the surface for use through underground canals. Iran has over 68,000 villages and the majority of them are located in valleys where there are springs or manmade Qanats as sources of water for living and farming. Because of significant differences in temperatures, there are seasonal differences between regions, sometimes over a period of 5 to 6 months. Less than 13% of the land in Iran is suitable for farming. The agricultural products of Iran are wheat, barley and various kinds of fruits and vegetables. The Caspian Sea area is known for its rice, cotton, tea and citrus fruits, and the southern part of Iran is known for citrus fruits and dates. Saffron is mainly produced in the province of South Khorassan and the Kerman area is famous for its delicious pistachios. Iran is well known for its caviar, pistachios, saffron, its beautiful handmade carpets and oil as well as minerals. It should be noted that, unfortunately, in the past three decades, because of poor planning, farmers have been permitted to dig deep wells in the thousands all over the country and water has been pumped out for farming or for the population use. This has caused the water table to become dangerously low and consequently thousands of qanats have dried out and a large number of villagers have migrated abandoning their homes. With the increase in the Iranian population and the recent drought cycle as well as the very low water table, the future of the country may be in peril.
From the time of antiquity, the Iranian people had been ingenious in using the natural forces, such as wind, gravity and flowing water to improve their way of life. Examples are the system of qanats previously described, wind mills, water mills and wind chimneys. Falling waters and winds are used to run mills for grinding wheat, the main staple of the people’s diet. Another use of the wind is for cooling houses in the hot summers by way of wind chimneys (baadgirs) on the roofs, a common feature, in old cities such as Yazd and Kashan. The Iranians may have also been the first people to build dams as well as transporting water from these dams or rivers to other locations by way of canals. This is seen in many existing ancient dams and miles of old canals.
Ancient Persians were very conscientious in preserving the environment. This is seen in the method by which they disposed of their dead. They placed the dead in a tower, called the Silent Tower, where vultures devoured the flesh and then the bones were treated and destroyed by lime or kept in a high place. Also, they were highly respectful of bodies of water, and in order not to pollute them they did not swim in them and removed the water and used it for cleaning and cooking away from the water source.
Nearly all the Iranians, with the exception of some Arab tribes in Khuzestan, are Aryans, a branch of the Indo-European race. The Indo-Europeans originated from the Caspian Sea area or Caucasus region and then spread over the Iranian Plateau, Indian continent, Eastern and Western Europe and then Americas. Because of their origin, they are also called Caucasians. The language of the Iranians is Persian or Farsi, and belongs to the family of the Indo-European languages. Because of their common roots, Farsi in its structure and vocabulary is similar to Indian, European and Slavic languages. Since Arabic script is used in Farsi and since the Iranians are Muslims, some confuse the Iranians with Arabs. The two people are different in race as well as in language. The Arabs and the Jews belong to the Semitic race and the Iranians are of the Indo-European race. Hebrew and Arabic are Semitic languages and are similar, while Farsi is similar to the European languages. For example, the word “mother” is “madar” in Farsi while it is “om” in Arabic or the word “brother” is “baradar” in Farsi while it is “akh” in Arabic. The word “two” is “dau” in Farsi while it is “ithnaan” in Arabic. Farsi has hundreds of these words similar to those in the European languages. It should be noted that often people also confuse Muslims with Arabs. The majority of Muslims are non-Arabs. The Arab population world-wide is about 365 million while the total population of the Muslims is about 1.6 billion. Also, it should be noted that the original Arabs were mainly from the Arabian Peninsula, present day Saudi Arabia, and most of other people who speak Arabic and are at present identified as Arabs such as Egyptians or other North Africans are not of Arab descent. They speak Arabic because they adopted the Arabic language after they were conquered by the Arabs and converted to Islam.
Iran has a population of over 79 million (50.7% male and 49.3% female). More than 71% of the population lives in the cities. The present birth rate is only 1.25% and this rather low rate is reflects a low rate of marriage due to many factors including unemployment, the high cost of living and housing. More than half of the population is under 35 years of age. The overall life expectancy is 73.7 years (2012 est.). The GDP per capita was approximately 5,193 USD in 2014 (statistics vary). The literacy rate for adults is above 85% and for young people (15-24, male and female) is over 98%. After the revolution of 1979, the Jihad Organization hired a significant number of young and educated people mainly from the villages across the country, and these young people were instrumental in improving the infrastructure and the standard living of the villagers. They built roads, schools and brought electricity and running water to their villages. More than 90% of the 68,000 villages have paved roads and 99% have electricity and telephones. Most villagers have running water, refrigerators, TV’s, telephones and because of these amenities, they have become more educated, healthier and they have also become more aware and knowledgeable politically and socially.